153. Governors of State.
There shall be a Governor for each State:
117[Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States.]
154. Executive Power of State
- The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution.
- Nothing in this article shall-
a. be deemed to transfer to the Governor any functions conferred by any existing law on any other authority; or
b. prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the State from conferring by law functions on any authority subordinate to the Governor.
155. Appointment of Governor
The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warant under his hand and seal.
156. Term of office of Governor.
- The Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.
- The Governor may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
- Subject to the foregoing provisions of this article, a Governor shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that a Governor shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.
157. Qualifications for Appointment as Governor.
No person shall be eligible for appointment as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five years.
158. Conditions of Governor’s office.
- The Governor shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State specified in the First Schedule, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any such State be appointed Governor, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as Governor.
- The Governor shall not hold any other office of profit.
- The Governor shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.
- The emoluments and allowances of the Governor shall not be diminished during his term of office.
118[(3A) Where the same person is appointed as Governor of two or more States, the emoluments and allowances payable to the Governor shall be allocated among the States in such proportion as the President may by order determine.]
159. Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
Every Governor and every person discharging the functions of the Governor shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the State, or, in his absence, the seniormost Judge of that Court available, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say-
“I, A. B., do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the office of Governor (or discharge the functions of the Governor) of ………….(name of the State) and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of …..(name of the State).”
160. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
The President may make such provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of a State in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter.
161. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit 161 or commute sentences in certain cases.
The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.
162. Extent of executive power of State.
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws:
Provided that in any matter with respect to which the Legislature of a State and Parliament have power to make laws, the executive power of the State shall be subject to, and limited by, the executive power expressly conferred by this Constitution or by any law made by Parliament upon the Union or authorities thereof.
163. Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
- There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except in so far as he is by or under this Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion.
- If any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as respects which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.
- The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by Ministers to the Governor shall not be inquired into in any court.
164. Other provisions as to Ministers.
- The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minster, and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor:
- The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State.
- Before a Minister enters upon his office, the Governor shall administer to him the oaths of office and of secrecy according to the forms set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.
- A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the Legislature of the State shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a Minister.
- The salaries and allowances of Ministers shall be such as the Legislature of the State may from time to time by law determine and, until the Legislature of the State so determines, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule.
Provided that in the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, there shall be a Minister in charge of tribal welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the Scheduled Castes and backward classes or any other work.
165. The Governor appoints the Advocate General for the State. </strong
166. All executive actions of the Governor of a State shall be expressed to be taken in the name of Governor.
167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.
It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State-
- to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation;
- to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and
- if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council.
174. The Governor shall, from time to time, summon and prorogue the House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly. Special Provisions
FIFTH SCHEDULE [Article 244(1)] : Special responsibility for the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
Article 371 (2): Special responsibility of the Governor Vidarbha, Marathwada and the rest of Maharashtra regions.